StyleBook configuration

Expressions

One of the most powerful features of a StyleBook is the use of expressions. You can use StyleBooks expressions in various scenarios to compute dynamic values. The following example is an expression to concatenate a parameter value with a literal string.

Example:

$parameters.appname + "-mon"

This expression retrieves the parameter named appname, and concatenates it with the string -mon.

The following types of expressions are supported:

Arithmetic expressions

  • Addition (+)
  • Subtraction (-)
  • Multiplication (*)
  • Division (/)
  • Modulo (%)

Examples:

  • Adding two numbers: $parameters.a + $parameters.b
  • Multiplying two numbers: $parameters.a * 10
  • Finding the remainder after division of one number by another:

15%10 Results in 5

String expressions

  • Concatenate two strings (+)

Example:

Concatenate two strings: str(“app-“) + $parameters.appname

List expressions

Merges two lists (+)

Example:

  • Concatenate two lists: $parameters.external-servers + $parameters.internal-servers

  • If $parameters.ports-1 is [80, 81] and $parameters.port-2 is [81, 82], the $parameters.ports-1 + $parameters.ports-2 displays as a list [80, 81, 81, 82].

Relational expressions

  • == : Tests if two operands are equal and returns true if they are equal, else returns false.

  • != : Tests if two operands are different and returns true if they are different, else returns false.

  • > : Returns true if the first operand is greater than the second operand, else returns false.

  • >= : Returns true if the first operand is greater than or equal to the second operand, else returns false.

  • < : Returns true if the first operand is lesser than the second operand, else returns false.

  • <= : Returns true if the first operand is lesser than or equal to the second operand, else returns false.

Example:

  • Use of Equality operator: $parameters.name = = "abcd"
  • Use of Inequality operator: $parameters.name != "default"
  • Examples for other relational operators

    • 10 > 9
    • 10 >= 10
    • 0 < 9
    • 10 <= 9
    • 10 == 10
    • 10 != 1

Logical expressions - boolean

  • and: The logical ‘and’ operator. If both operands are true, the result is true, else it is false.

  • or: The logical ‘or’ operator. If one of the operands is true, the result is true, else it is false.

  • not: The unary operator. If the operand is true, the result is false, and the opposite way.

  • in: Tests whether the first argument is a substring of the second argument

  • in: Tests if an item is part of a list

Note

You can type-cast expressions where strings are converted into numbers (using int() builtin function) and numbers are converted to strings (using str() builtin function). Similarly, you can cast tcp-port to a number (using the int() builtin function), and an IP address can be cast to a string (using the str() builtin function).

Use a delimiter before and after any operator. You can use the following delimiters:

  • Before an operator: space, tab, comma, (, ), [, ]

  • After an operator: space, tab, (, [

For example:

  • abc + def

  • 100 % 10

  • 10 > 9

  • $item in $parameters.some-list

Splat expressions

A splat expression [*] provides a simpler way to retrieve a certain attribute from a complex list for all the iterations. You can now include splat expressions in a StyleBook definition.

Syntax:

list[*].attribute
<!--NeedCopy-->

This expression iterates over all the items of the list specified to its left and returns the attribute value specified to its right.

When you want to retrieve an IP address or host name of each virtual server from the list, you can use the following splat expressions:

Example 1:

$parameters.server-members[*].hostname
<!--NeedCopy-->

This expression returns a list of host names from all the server-members.

Example 2:

$parameters.server-members[*].sub-domains[*].name
<!--NeedCopy-->

This expression returns a list of all names under the subdomains of each server-members.

These expressions always return the right-most element type’s list.

Verbatim string expressions

You can use verbatim strings when special characters in a string have to take their literal form. These strings can contain escape characters, backslash, quotes, parentheses, whitespaces, brackets, and so on. In verbatim strings, the special characters’ usual interpretation is skipped. All the characters in the string are preserved in their literal form.

In StyleBooks, you can include Citrix ADC Policy Expressions in their literal form using verbatim strings. The Policy Expressions typically contain special characters. Without verbatim strings, you have to escape special characters by breaking strings into substrings.

To create a verbatim string, encapsulate a string between special characters as follows:

~{string}~
<!--NeedCopy-->

You can use verbatim strings in the StyleBook expressions.

Note

Do not use the sequence of characters }~ in an input string because this sequence indicates the end of a verbatim string.

Example:

 ~{HTTP.REQ.COOKIE.VALUE("jsessionid") ALT HTTP.REQ.URL.BEFORE_STR("=").AFTER_STR(";jsessionid=") ALT HTTP.REQ.URL.AFTER_STR(";jsessionid=")}~
<!--NeedCopy-->

Concatenate multiple verbatim strings

You can concatenate verbatim strings with the regular strings or strings with interpolations. When you do so, the StyleBook skips the interpretation only for the verbatim strings. Use the plus (+) operator between the strings to concatenate.

Example:

value: "~{\"id\": \"}~ + %{$atom.key}% + ~{\", \"value\": \"}~ + %{$atom.value}% + ~{\"}~"
<!--NeedCopy-->

In this example, %{$atom.key}% and %{$atom.value}% are interpreted. And, the interpretation is skipped for the rest.

Target expressions

In a StyleBook definition, you can use the $current-target expression to refer the current target ADC instance. To specifically refer an IP address of the target ADC instance, use this expression as follows:

$current-target.ip
<!--NeedCopy-->

Example:

components:
 -
  name: lb-comp
  type: ns::lbvserver
  properties:
    name: $current-target.ip + "-lbvserver"
<!--NeedCopy-->

In this example, the name of the lbvserver uses the IP address of the target ADC instance.

Expression Type Validation

StyleBook engine now allows for stronger type checking during compile time, that is, the expressions used while writing the StyleBook are validated during the import of a StyleBook itself rather than while creating the configuration pack.

All references to parameters, substitutions, components, properties of components, outputs of components, user-defined variables (repeat-item, repeat-index, arguments to substitution functions) and so on are all validated for their existence and types.

Example of Type Checks:

In the following example, the expected type of port property of lbvserver StyleBook is tcp-port. In Citrix Application Delivery Management (ADM), the type validations happen at compile-time (import-time). The compiler finds that string and tcp-port are not compatible types and therefore, the StyleBook compiler displays an error and fails to import or migrate a StyleBook.


components:
  -
    name: lbvserver-comp
    type: ns::lbvserver
    properties:
      name: mylb
      ipv46: 10.102.190.15
      port: str("80")
      servicetype: HTTP
<!--NeedCopy-->

To successfully compile this StyleBook, declare the following as a number in the compiler:

port: 80

Example of Flagging Invalid Expressions:

In earlier releases, when an invalid expression was assigned to a property name, the compiler did not detect invalid expressions and allowed the StyleBooks to be imported into Citrix ADM. Now if this StyleBook is imported to Citrix ADM, the compiler identifies such invalid expressions and flag it. As a result, the StyleBook fails to import to Citrix ADM.

In this example, the expression assigned to the name property in the lb-sg-binding-comp component is: $components.lbvserver-comp.properties.lbvservername. However, there is no property called lbvservername in component lbvserver-comp. In earlier Citrix ADM releases, the compiler would have allowed this expression and successfully imported it. The actual failure would happen when a user wants to create a configuration pack using this StyleBook. However now, this kind of error is identified during import and the StyleBook is not imported to Citrix ADM. Manually correct such errors and import the StyleBooks.

Components:
  -
    name: lbvserver-comp
    type: ns::lbvserver
    properties:
      name: mylb
      ipv46: 10.102.190.15
      port: 80
      servicetype: HTTP
  -
    name: sg-comp
    type: ns::servicegroup
    properties:
      servicegroupname: mysg
      servicetype: HTTP
  -
    name: lb-sg-binding-comp
    type: ns::lbvserver_servicegroup_binding
    condition: $parameters.create-binding
    properties:
      name: $components.lbvserver-comp.properties.lbvservername
      servicegroupname: $components.sg-comp.properties.servicegroupname
<!--NeedCopy-->

Implicit typecasting of datatypes

When you use StyleBook expressions for different datatypes, the StyleBook engine now implicitly typecasts the output to an appropriate datatype. The implicit typecasting of datatypes supports binary operations and value assignments.

Examples for binary operations:

  • Adding (+) two variables of type string and number, sets the output datatype to string.

$parameters.appname + '_' + $parameters.app_instance_num

  • Adding (+) two variables of type string and ipaddress, sets the output datatype to string.

$parameters.appname + '_' + $parameters.instance_ip

  • Adding (+) two variables of type ipaddress and number, sets the output datatype to ipaddress.

$parameters.instance_ip + $parameters.number

  • Subtracting (-) two variables of type ipaddress and number, sets the output datatype to ipaddress.

$parameters.instance_ip - $parameters.number

  • Multiplying (*) two variables of type string and number, sets the output datatype to string.

$parameters.dummy_str * $parameters.count

Examples for value assignments:

  • If a variable is defined as the string datatype, the assigned value is converted to the defined datatype.

name: $parameters.port * 3

  • If a variable is defined as the portnumber datatype, the assigned value converted to the portnumber datatype with exceptions.

port: $index + $parameters.lower_limit

Indexing Lists

Items of a list can be accessed now by indexing them directly:

   
Expression Description
$components.test-lbs[0] Refers to the first item in thetest-lbs component
$components.test-lbs[0].properties.p1 Refers to property p1 of the first item in the test-lbs component
$components.lbcomps[0].outputs.servicegroups[1].properties.servicegroupname Refers to the property servicegroupname of the second item in the servicegroups component, which is an output from the first item of the lbcomps component