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Jan 25, 2017
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Policies

Policies provide the basis to configure and fine tune XenApp and XenDesktop environments, allowing organizations to control connection, security and bandwidth settings based on various combinations of users, devices or connection types.

When making policy decisions it is important to consider both Microsoft and Citrix policies to ensure that all user experience, security and optimization settings are considered. For a list of all Citrix-related policies, please refer to the Citrix Policy Settings Reference.

Decision: Preferred Policy Engine

Organizations have the option to configure Citrix policies via Citrix Studio or through Active Directory group policy using Citrix ADMX files, which extend group policy and provide advanced filtering mechanisms.

Using Active Directory group policy allows organizations to manage both Windows policies and Citrix policies in the same location, and minimizes the administrative tools required for policy management. Group policies are automatically replicated across domain controllers, protecting the information and simplifying policy application.

Citrix administrative consoles should be used if Citrix administrators do not have access to Active Directory policies. Architects should select one of the above two methods as appropriate for their organization’s needs and use that method consistently to avoid confusion with multiple Citrix policy locations.

It is important to understand how the aggregation of policies, known as policy precedence flows in order to understand how a resultant set of policies is created. With Active Directory and Citrix policies, the precedence is as follows:

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Policies from each level are aggregated into a final policy that is applied to the user or computer. In most enterprise deployments, Citrix administrators do not have rights to change policies outside their specific OUs, which will typically be the highest level for precedence. In cases where exceptions are required, the application of policy settings from higher up the OU tree can be managed using “block inheritance” and “no override” settings. Block inheritance stops settings from higher-level OUs (lower precedence) from being incorporated into the policy. However, if a higher-level OU policy is configured with no override, the block inheritance setting will not be applied. Given this, care must be taken in policy planning, and available tools such as the “Active Directory Resultant Set of Policy” tool or the “Citrix Group Policy Modeling” wizard should be used to validate the observed outcomes with the expected outcomes.

Note: Some Citrix policy settings, if used, need to be configured through Active Directory group policy, such as Controllers and Controller registration port, as these settings are required for VDAs to register.

Decision: Policy Integration

When configuring policies, organizations often require both Active Directory policies and Citrix policies to create a completely configured environment. With the use of both policy sets, the resultant set of policies can become confusing to determine. In some cases, particularly with respect to Windows Remote Desktop Services (RDS) and Citrix policies, similar functionality can be configured in two different locations. For example, it is possible to enable client drive mapping in a Citrix policy and disable client drive mapping in a RDS policy. The ability to use the desired feature may be dependent upon the combination of RDS and Citrix policy. It is important to understand that Citrix policies build upon functionality available in Remote Desktop Services. If the required feature is explicitly disabled in RDS policy, Citrix policy will not be able to affect a configuration as the underlying functionality has been disabled.

In order to avoid this confusion, it is recommended that RDS policies only be configured where required and there is no corresponding policy in the XenApp and XenDesktop configuration, or the configuration is specifically needed for RDS use within the organization. Configuring policies at the highest common denominator will simplify the process of understanding resultant set of policies and troubleshooting policy configurations.

Decision: Policy Scope

Once policies have been created, they need to be applied to groups of users and/or computers based on the required outcome. Policy filtering provides the ability to apply policies against the requisite user or computer groups. With Active Directory based policies, a key decision is whether to apply a policy to computers or users within site, domain or organizational unit (OU) objects. Active Directory policies are broken down into user configuration and computer configuration. By default, the settings within the user configuration apply to users who reside within the OU at logon, and settings within the computer configuration are applied to the computer at system startup, and will affect all users who logon to the system. One challenge of policy association with Active Directory and Citrix deployments revolves around three core areas:

  • Citrix environment specific computer policies - Citrix servers and virtual desktops often have computer policies that are created and deployed specifically for the environment. Applying these policies is easily accomplished by creating separate OU structures for the servers and the virtual desktops. Specific policies can then be created and confidently applied to only the computers within the OU and below and nothing else. Based upon requirements, virtual desktops and servers may be further subdivided within the OU structure based on server roles, geographical locations or business units.
  • Citrix specific user policies -– When creating policies for XenApp and XenDesktop there are a number of policies specific to user experience and security that are applied based on the user’s connection. However, the user’s account could be located anywhere within the Active Directory structure, creating difficulty with simply applying user configuration based policies. It is not desirable to apply the Citrix specific configurations at the domain level as the settings would be applied to every system any user logs on to. Simply applying the user configuration settings at the OU where the Citrix servers or virtual desktops are located will also not work, as the user accounts are not located within that OU. The solution is to apply a loopback policy, which is a computer configuration policy that forces the computer to apply the assigned user configuration policy of the OU to any user who logs onto the server or virtual desktop, regardless of the user’s location within Active Directory. Loopback processing can be applied with either merge or replace settings. Using replace overwrites the entire user GPO with the policy from the Citrix server or virtual desktop OU. Merge will combine the user GPO with the GPO from the Citrix server or desktop OU. As the computer GPOs are processed after the user GPOs when merge is used, the Citrix related OU settings will have precedence and be applied in the event of a conflict. For more information, please refer to the Microsoft TechNet article - Understand User Group Policy Loopback Mode.
  • Active Directory policy filtering - In more advanced cases, there may be a need to apply a policy setting to a small subset of users such as Citrix administrators. In this case, loopback processing will not work, as the policy should only be applied to a subset of users, not all users who logon to the system. Active Directory policy filtering can be used to specify specific users or groups of users to which the policy is applied. A policy can be created for a specific function, and then a policy filter can be set to apply that policy only to a group of users such as Citrix administrators. Policy filtering is accomplished using the security properties of each target policy.

Citrix policies created using Citrix Studio have specific filter settings available, which may be used to address policy-filtering situations that cannot be handled using group policy. Citrix policies may be applied using any combination of the following filters:

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Note: Citrix policies in XenDesktop 7.x provide a merged view of settings that apply at the user and computer level. In table 24, the Scope column identifies whether the specified filter applies to user settings, computer settings, or both.

Decision: Baseline Policy

A baseline policy should contain all common elements required to deliver a high-definition experience to the majority of users within the organization. A baseline policy creates the foundation for user access, and any exceptions that may need to be created to address specific access requirements for groups of users. It should be comprehensive to cover as many use cases as possible and should have the lowest priority, for example 99 (a priority number of “1” is the highest priority), in order to create the simplest policy structure possible and avoid difficulties in determining the resultant set of policies. The unfiltered policy set provided by Citrix as the default policy may be used to create the baseline policy as it is applied to all users and connections. In the baseline configuration, all Citrix policy settings should be enabled, even those that will be configured with the default value, in order to explicitly define desired/expected behavior, and to avoid confusion should default settings change over time.

Citrix Policy templates can be used to configure Citrix policies to effectively manage the end-user experience within an environment and can serve as an initial starting point for a baseline policy. Templates consist of pre-configured settings that optimize performance for specific environments or network conditions. The built-in templates included in XenDesktop are shown below:

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For more information on Citrix policy templates, please refer to Citrix eDocs - Manage Citrix Policy Templates.

A baseline policy configuration should also include Windows policies. Windows policies reflect user specific settings that optimize the user experience and remove features that are not required or desired in a XenDesktop environment. For example, one common feature turned off in these environments is Windows update. In virtualized environments, particularly where desktops and servers may be streamed and non-persistent, Windows update creates processing and network overhead, and changes made by the update process will not persist a restart of the virtual desktop or application server. Also in many cases, organizations use Windows software update service (WSUS) to control Windows updates. In these cases, updates are applied to the master disk and made available by the IT department on a scheduled basis.

In addition to the above considerations, an organization’s final baseline policy may include settings specifically created to address security requirements, common network conditions, or to manage user device or user profile requirements:

Printing

Citrix XenApp and Citrix XenDesktop support a variety of different printing solutions. In order to plan and successfully implement the proper printing solution it is important to understand the available technologies as well as their benefits and limitations.

Decision: Printer Provisioning

The process of creating printers at the start of a XenApp or XenDesktop session is called printer provisioning. There are multiple approaches available:

  • User Added - Allowing users to manually add printers gives them the flexibility to select printers by convenience. The drawback to manually adding network-based printers is that it requires the users to know the network name or path of the printers. There is also a chance that the native print driver is not installed in the operating system and the Citrix Universal Print Driver is not compatible, thereby requiring the user to seek administrative assistance. Manually adding printers is best suited in the following situations:
    • Users roam between different locations using the same client device (i.e. laptop, tablet).
    • Users work at assigned stations or areas whose printer assignments will rarely change.
    • Users have personal desktops with sufficient rights to install necessary printer drivers.
  • Auto Created - Auto-creation is a form of dynamic provisioning that attempts to create some or all of the available printers on the client device at the start of a user session. This includes locally attached printers as well as network-based printers. Auto-creating all client printers can increase the session logon time as each printer is enumerated during the logon process.
  • Session-Based - Session printers are a set of network-based printers assigned to users through a Citrix policy at the start of each session.
    • Proximity Based: Session printers filtred by IP subnet. The network printers created under this policy may vary based on where the user’s endpoint device is located. Proximity printing is recommended in situations where: Users roam between different locations using the same endpoint device (i.e. laptop, tablet) and where thin clients are used, which do not have the ability to connect to network-based printers directly.
    • Session printers can be assigned using the “Session Printer” policy or the “Printer Assignments” policy. The “Session printer” policy is intended to be used to set default printers for a farm, site, large group, or OU. The “Printer Assignments” policy is used to assign a large group of printers to multiple users. If both policies are enabled and configured, the session printers will be merged into a single list.
  • Universal Printer - The Citrix Universal Printer is a generic printer object that is auto-created at the start of a session and is not linked to a printing device. When using the Citrix Universal Printer it is not required to enumerate the available client printers during logon, which can greatly reduce resource usage and decrease user logon times. By default the Citrix Universal Printer will print to the client’s default printer, however the behavior can be modified to allow the user to select any of their compatible local or network-based printers.

    The Citrix Universal Printer is best suited for the following scenarios:
    • The user requires access to multiple printers both local and network-based which may vary with each session.
    • The user’s logon performance is a priority and the Citrix policy “Wait for printers to be created” must be enabled due to application compatibility.
    • The user is working from a Windows based device or thin client.

Note: Other options for provisioning printers, such as Active Directory group policy, “follow-me” centralized print queue solutions, and other 3rd party print management solutions can be used to provision printers into a Citrix session.

Decision: Printer Drivers

Managing print drivers in XenApp and XenDesktop can be a tedious task, especially in large environments with hundreds of printers. In XenApp and XenDesktop there are several methods available to assist with print driver management.

  • User Installed - When adding a printer within a XenApp or XenDesktop session and the native print driver is not available, the drivers can be installed manually, by the user. Many different print drivers can potentially be installed on different resources creating inconsistencies within the environment. Troubleshooting printing problems and maintenance of print drivers can become very challenging since every hosted resource may have different sets of print drivers installed. To ensure consistency and simplify support and troubleshooting, user installed drivers is not recommended.
  • Automatic Installation - When connecting a printer within a XenApp or XenDesktop session, a check is made to see if the required print driver is already installed in the operating system. If the print driver is not already installed, the native print driver, if one exists, will be installed automatically. If users roam between multiple endpoints and locations, this can create inconsistencies across sessions since users may access a different hosted resource every time they connect. When this type of scenario occurs, troubleshooting printing problems and maintenance of print drivers can become very challenging since every hosted resource may have different sets of print drivers installed. To ensure consistency and simplify support and troubleshooting, automatic installed drivers is not recommended.
  • Universal Print Driver - The Citrix Universal Printer Driver (UPD) is a device independent print driver, which has been designed to work with most printers. The Citrix Universal Printer Driver (UPD) simplifies administration by reducing the number of drivers required on the master image. For autocreated client printers, the driver records the output of the application and sends it, without any modification, to the end-point device. The endpoint uses local, device-specific drivers to finish printing the job to the printer. The UPD can be used in conjuction with the Citrix Universal Print Server (UPServer) to extend this functionality to network printers.

Decision: Printer Routing

Print jobs can be routed along different paths: through a client device or through a print server.

  • Client Device Routing - Client devices with locally attached printers (printers attached through USB, LPT, COM, TCP, etc.) will route print jobs directly from the client device to the printer.
  • Windows Print Server Routing - By default, print jobs sent to auto-created network-based printers will be routed from the user’s session to the print server. However, the print job will take a fallback route through the client device when any of the following conditions are true:
    • The session cannot contact the print server
    • The print server is on a different domain without a trust established
    • The native print driver is not available within the user’s session
  • Citrix Universal Print Server Routing - Print job routing follows the same process as Windows Print Server Routing except that the Universal Print Driver is used between the user’s session and the Citrix Universal Print Server.

The specifics with print job routing are based on the printer provisioning method. Auto-created and user-added printers can route print jobs based on the folloing diagrams:

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However, if the printers are provisioned as session printers, the print job routing options changes slightly. The jobs are no longer able to route through the user’s endpoint device.

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The recommended option is based on the network location of the endpoint device, the user’s session and the print server.

  • Client Device Routing
    • Use for locally attached printer implementations.
    • Use if a Windows endpoint device and printer are on the same high-speed, low-latency network as the Windows Print Server.
  • Windows Print Server Routing
    • Use if the printer is on the same high-speed, low-latency network as the Windows Print Server and user session.
  • Windows Print Server Routing (with Universal Print Server)
    • Use if non-Windows endpoint device and printer are on the same high-speed, low-latency network as the Windows Print Server.

Decision: Print Server Redundancy

Network-based printers, managed with a Microsoft print server or the Citrix Universal Print Server should be configured with redundancy in order to eliminate a single point of failure. The Citrix Universal Print Server should be defined within a Citrix Policy.

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Applications

Properly integrating an application requires understanding compatilibty and how the user/business requirements influences the appropriate delivery method.

Decision: Compatibility

VDI typically requires significant changes to be made to an organization’s application delivery and management strategy. For example, many organizations will take the opportunity to upgrade their desktop operating system and to simplify management by reducing the number of applications installed into the base image using techniques such as application streaming and application layering. These are significant changes that require comprehensive compatibility testing. Important compatibility requirements that may need to be verified include:

  • Operating system - the application must be compatible with the preferred operating system.
  • Multi-User -  Some applications may be more appropriate for delivery via a hosted shared desktop or a hosted Windows App. In these situations, the compatibility of the application must be verified against the multi-user capabilities of a server operating system like Windows Server 2012R2.
  • Application architecture - It is important to understand whether the application includes 16-bit, 32-bit or 64-bit code so that an appropriate operating system can be selected. 16-bit code cannot be executed on a 64-bit operating system. However, a 16-bit application can be delivered to users as a Hosted Windows App from a 32-bit desktop-based operating system like x86 editions of Windows 7, 8 or 10.
  • Interoperability - Some applications may experience complications if they coexist on the same operating system. Possible causes include shared registry hives, dll files or INI files as well as incompatible dependencies. Application interoperability issues should be identified so that appropriate remediation steps can be taken or an alternative delivery model selected.
  • Dependency - Applications may need to interact with each other to provide the users with a seamless experience. For example, applications that present information in a PDF format require a suitable PDF viewer to be available. Many times, the dependent (child) applications are version specific to the parent application.
  • Application virtualization - The use of application virtualization techniques, like streaming and layering, helps to simplify image management by reducing the number of applications installed into the base image. However, not all applications are suitable for streaming and layering because they may install device drivers, use COM+ or form part of the operating system.

Application compatibility can be achieved by doing a combination of manual, user testing, utilizing pre-verified lists maintained by the software vendor, or using an automated application compatibility solution, like Citrix AppDNA which runs through thousands of tests to verify compatibility.

Decision: Application Delivery Method

It is unlikely that a single delivery method will meet all requirements. Based on the outcome of the application categorization assessment process, several application delivery methods can be considered.

Choosing one of the appropriate application delivery method helps improve scalability, management and user experience.

  • Installed app - The application is part of the base desktop image. The install process involves dll, exe and other files being copied to the image drive as well as registry modifications.
  • Streamed App (Microsoft App-V) - The application is profiled and delivered to the desktops across the network on-demand. Application files and registry settings are placed in a container on the virtual desktop and are isolated from the base operating system and each other, which helps to address compatibility issues.
  • Hosted Windows App - The application is installed on a multi-user XenApp host and deployed as an application and not a desktop. The hosted Widnwos app is accessed seamless from the user’s VDI desktop or endpoint device, hiding the fact that the app is executing remotely.
  • Local App - The application is deployed on the endpoint device. The application interface appears within the user’s hosted VDI session even though it executes on the endpoint.

The following table provides recommendations on the preferred approaches for integrating applications into the overall solution:

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Virtual Machines

Virtual resources require proper allocation of the processor, memory and disk. These decisions have a direct impact on the the amount of hardware required as well as the user experience.

The key to successful resource allocation is to ensure that virtual desktops and applications offer similar levels of performance to physical desktops. Otherwise, productivity and overall user satisfaction will be affected. Allocating resources to the virtual machines above their requirements however is inefficient and expensive for the business.

The resources allocated should be based on the workload characteristic of each user group, identified during the assess phase.

Decision: Virtual Processor (vCPU)

For hosted desktop-based VDI models (hosted pooled desktops and hosted personal desktops), the general recommendation is two or more vCPUs per virtual machine so that multiple threads can be executed simultaneously. Although a single vCPU could be assigned for extremely light workloads, users are more likely to experience session hangs.

For hosted server-based VDI models (hosted Windows apps, hosted browser apps, hosted shared desktops), the proper vCPU allocation is based on the Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) architecture of the processors.

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Each socket is divided into one or more NUMA nodes. Hosted server-based VDI models will often utilize 4 or more processors. Allocating more vCPU than the NUMA node contains results in a performance hit. Allocating a portion of a NUMA node to a virtual machine results in a perofmrance hit if the portion allocated is not easily divisible by the size of the NUMA node. It is often ideal to allocate the number of cores within a NUMA node to a virtual machine or allocate ½ of the cores to a virtual machine, while doubling the number of virtual machines.

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Note: Windows 2012R2 recommendations are based on the hosted Windows app, hosted browser app and hosted shared desktop VDI model.

Decision: Virtual Memory (vRAM)

The amount of memory allocated to each resource is a function of the user’s expected workload and application footprint. Assigning insufficient memory to the virtual machines will cause excessive paging to disk, resulting in a poor user experience; allocating too much RAM increases the overall cost of the solution.

The following table provides guidance on the virtual RAM that should be assigned based on workload:

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Note: Windows 2012R2 recommendations are based on the hosted Windows app, hosted browser app and hosted shared desktop VDI model.

Note: Memory allocation above 4GB requires a 64-bit operating system.

Note: If used, the Machine Creation Sevices and Provisioning Sevices cache in RAM amount should be added onto the virtual machine RAM specifications.

Decision: Disk Cache

The amount of storage that each VM requires will vary based on the workload and the image type. If creating hosted personal desktop without leveraging an image management solution, each VM will require enough storage for the entire OS and locally installed applications.

Deploying machines through Machine Creation Services or Provisioning Services can substantially reduce the storage requirements for each virtual machine. Disk space requirements for the write cache and difference disk will depend on application usage and user behavior. However, the following table provides a starting point for estimating disk space requirements based on machine sized with vCPU and vRAM as per the guidelines above:

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Decision: RAM Cache

Provisioning Services and Machine Creation Services have the capability to utilize a portion of the virtual machine’s RAM as a buffer for the storage cache. The RAM cache is used to improve the performance of traditional storage by sharing the virtual machine’s non-paged pool memory

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Note: If used, the Machine Creation Sevices and Provisioning Sevices cache in RAM amount should be added onto the virtual machine RAM specifications.

Note: If additional RAM is available on the host, the RAM Cache amounts can be increased to provide even greater levels of performance.

Decision: Storage IOPS

Storage performance is limited by the number of operations it can handle per second, referred to as IOPS. Underallocating storage IOPS results in a VDI desktop where apps, web pages and data are slow to load.

The following table provides guidance on the number of storage IOPS generated per user based on workload and operating system. Storage IO activity will be higher during user logon/logoff.

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Decision: Graphics (GPU)

Without a graphical processing unit (GPU), graphical processing is rendered with software by the CPU. A graphical processing unit (GPU) can be leveraged to improve server scalability and user experience or enable the use of graphically intensive applications. During the desktop design it is important to decide how the GPU (if used) will be mapped to the virtual machines. There are three methods available.

  • Pass-Through GPU - Each physical GPU is passed through to a single virtual machine (hosted apps or hosted desktops).
  • Hardware Virtualized GPU - Using a hypervisor’s vGPU technology, an NVIDIA GRID or Intel Iris Pro is virtualized and shared between multiple machines. Each virtual machine has the full functionality of GPU drivers and direct access to the GPU.
  • Software Virtualized GPU - The GPU is managed by the hypervisor and intercepts requests made by the VDI desktops. This process is used if a GPU is not installed within the host.
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User groups with a heavy use of graphical applications will often require the use of a NVidia hardware virtualized GPU. User groups who rely on office-based applications can have an observable benefit with the use of a hardware virtualized GPU from Intel.

Layer 4: The Control Layer

Active Directory

Decision: Forest Design

Multi-forest deployments, by default, do not have inter-domain trust relationships between the forests. An Active Directory administrator can establish trust relationships between the multiple forests, allowing the users and computers from one forest to authenticate and access resources in another forest.

For forests that have inter-domain trusts, Citrix recommends that the appropriate settings be configured to allow the Delivery Controllers to communicate with both domains. When the appropriate trusts are not configured, multiple XenDesktop sites for each forest must be configured. This section outlines the storage requirements on a per product basis and provides sizing calculations. For more information, please refer to Citrix article: CTX134971 - Successfully Deploying XenDesktop in a Complex Active Directory Environment.

Decision: Organizational Unit Structure

Infrastructure components for a XenApp and XenDestkop deployment should reside within their own dedicated organizational units (OUs); separating workers and controllers for management purposes. By having their own OUs, the objects inside will have greater flexibility with their management while allowing Citrix administrators to be granted delegated control.

A sample Citrix OU structure can be seen below.

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Decision: User Groups

Whenever possible, permissions and authorization should be assigned to user groups rather than individual users, thereby eliminating the need to edit a large amount of resource permissions and user rights when creating, modifying, or deleting user accounts.

Permission application example:

  • An application published to one group of 1,000 users requires the validation of only one object for all 1,000 users.
  • The same application published to 1,000 individual user accounts requires the validation of all 1,000 objects.

Database

The majority of Citrix products discussed within this document require a database. The following table outlines the usage on a per product basis:

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Decision: Edition

There are multiple editions of Microsoft SQL Server 2012: Express, Web, Standard, Business Intelligence, and Enterprise. Based on the capabilities of the various SQL Server editions available, the Standard edition is often used for hosting the XenApp and XenDesktop databases in production environments.

The Standard edition provides an adequate amount of features to meet the needs of most environments. For more information on the databases supported with Citrix products please refer to the Citrix Database Support Matrix. Different versions of Citrix products support different versions of the SQL server; therefore it is important to check the support matrix to ensure the version of SQL server used is compatible with the Citrix product being deployed.

Decision: Database Server Sizing

The SQL server must be sized correctly to ensure the performance and stability of an environment. Since every Citrix product uses SQL server in a different way, no generic all-encompassing sizing recommendations can be provided. Instead, per-product SQL server sizing recommendations are provided below.

XenApp and XenDesktop

XenApp and XenDesktop Brokers use the database as a message bus for broker communications, storing configuration data and storing monitoring and configuration log data. The databases are constantly in use and the performance impact on the SQL server can be considered as high.

Based on results from Citrix internal scalability testing the following SQL server specification for a server hosting all XenDesktop databases are recommended:

  • 2 Cores / 4 GB RAM for environments up to 5,000 users
  • 4 Cores / 8 GB RAM for environments up to 15,000 users
  • 8 Cores / 16 GB RAM for environments with 15,000+ users

The database files and transaction logs should be hosted on separate hard disk subsystems in order to cope with a high number of transactions. For example, registering 20,000 virtual desktops during a 15 minute boot storm causes ~500 transactions / second and 20,000 users logging on during a 30 minute logon storm causes ~800 transactions / second on the XenDesktop Site Database.

Provisioning Services

In addition to static configuration data provisioning servers store runtime and auditing information in the database. Depending on the boot and management pattern, the performance impact of the database can be considered as low to medium.

Based on this categorization, a SQL server specification of 4 Cores and 4 GB RAM is recommended as a good starting point. The SQL server should be carefully monitored during the testing and pilot phase in order to determine the optimal configuration of the SQL server.

Decision: Instance Sizing

When sizing a SQL database, two aspects are important:

  • Database file - Contains the data and objects such as tables, indexes, stored procedures and views stored in the database.
  • Transaction log file - Contains a record of all transactions and database modifications made by each transaction. The transaction log is a critical component of the database and, if there is a system failure, the transaction log might be required to bring the database back to a consistent state. The usage of the transaction log varies depending on which database recovery model is used:
    • Simple recovery - No log backups required. Log space is automatically reclaimed, to keep space requirements small, essentially eliminating the need to manage the transaction log space. Changes to the database since the most recent backup are unprotected. In the event of a disaster, those changes must be redone.
    • Full recovery - Requires log backups. No work is lost due to a lost or damaged database data file. Data of any arbitrary point in time can be recovered (for example, prior to application or user error). Full recovery is required for database mirroring.
    • Bulk-logged - Requires log backups. This is an adjunct of the full recovery model that permits high-performance bulk copy operations. It is typically not used for Citrix databases.

For further information, please refer to the Microsoft Developer Network – SQL Server Recovery Models.

In order to estimate storage requirements, it is important to understand the disk space consumption for common database entries. This section outlines the storage requirements on a per product basis and provides sizing calculations. For more information, please refer to Citrix article: CTX139508 – XenDesktop 7.x Database Sizing.

XenDesktop General

XenApp 7.x and XenDesktop 7.x use three distinct databases:

  • Site Configuration database - Contains static configuration and dynamic runtime data
  • Monitoring database - Contains monitoring data which is accessible through Director
  • Configuration logging database - Contains a record for each administrative change performed within the site (accessible through Studio)

Site Database

Since the database of a XenApp or XenDesktop site contains static configuration data and dynamic runtime data, the size of the database file depends not only on the physical size of the environment but also user patterns. The following factors all impact the size of the database file:

  • The number of connected sessions
  • The number of configured and registered VDAs
  • The number of transactions occurring during logon
  • The VDA heartbeat transactions

The size of the Site Database is based on the number of VDAs and active sessions. The following table shows the typical maximum database size Citrix observed when scale testing XenApp and XenDesktop with a sample number of users, applications, and desktop delivery methods.

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Note: This sizing information is a guide only. Actual database sizes may differ slightly by deployment due to how databases are maintained.

Determining the size of the transaction log for the Site database is difficult due to factors that can influence the log including:

  • The SQL Database recovery model
  • The launch rate at peak times
  • The number of desktops being delivered

During XenDesktop scalability testing, Citrix observed the transaction log growth rate at 3.5MB an hour when the system is idle, and a per user per day growth rate of ~32KB. In a large environment, transaction log usage requires careful management and a regular backup, to prevent excessive growth. This can be achieved by means of scheduled jobs or maintenance plans

Monitoring Database

Of the three databases, the Monitoring database is expected to be the largest since it contains historical information for the site. Its size is dependent on many factors including:

  • Number of Users
  • Number of sessions and connections
  • Number of workers
  • Retention period configuration – Platinum customers can keep data for over a year (default 90 days). Non-platinum customers can keep data for up to 7 days (default 7 days).
  • Number of transaction per second. Monitoring service tends to execute updates in batches. It is rare to have the number of transactions per second go above 20.
  • Background transaction caused by regular consolidation calls from the Monitoring service.
  • Overnight processing carried out to remove data outside the configured retention period.

The following table shows the estimated size of the Monitoring database over a period of time under different scenarios. This data is an estimate based on data seen within scale testing XenApp and XenDesktop (assuming a 5 day working week).

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Note: The 100,000 HSD tests are based on a test environment consisting of:

  •  2 Delivery Controllers
  • 43 Hosted Shared Desktop workers
  • 3 SQL servers, configured with databases held within one Always On Availability Group

For more information please see the Citrix Support article XenDesktop 7.x Database Sizing.

The size of the transaction log for the Monitoring Database is very hard to estimate, but XenApp and XenDesktop scalability testing showed a growth rate of about 30.5 MB an hour when the system is idle, and a per user per day growth rate of ~9 KB.

Configuration Logging Database

The Configuration Logging Database is typically the smallest of the three databases. Its size and the size of the related transaction log depends on the daily administrative activities initiated from Studio, Director or PowerShell scripts, therefore its size is difficult to estimate. The more configuration changes are performed, the larger the database will grow. Some factors that can affect the size of the database include:

  • The number of actions performed in Studio, Director and PowerShell.
  • Minimal transactions which occur on the database when no configuration changes are taking place.
  • The transaction rate during updates. Updates are batched whenever possible.
  • Data manually removed from the database. Data within the Configuration Logging Database is not subject to any retention policy, therefore it is not removed unless done so manually by an administrator.
  • Activities that have an impact on sessions or users, for example, session logoff and reset.
  • he mechanism used for deploying desktops.

In XenApp environments not using MCS, the database size tends to fall between 30 and 40MB. For MCS environments, database size can easily exceed 200MB due to the logging of all VM build data.

Temporary Database

In addition to the Site, Monitoring, and Configuration Logging databases, a system-wide temporary database (tempdb) is provided by SQL Server. This temporary database is used to store Read-Committed Snapshot Isolation data. XenApp 7.x and XenDesktop 7.x uses this SQL Server feature to reduce lock contention on the XenApp and XenDesktop databases. Citrix recommends that all XenApp 7.x and XenDesktop 7.x databases use Read-Committed Snapshot Isolation. For more information please see How to Enable Read-Committed Snapshot in XenDesktop.

The size of the tempdb database will depend on the number of active transactions, but in general it is not expected to grow more than a few MBs. The performance of the tempdb database does not impact the performance of XenApp and XenDesktop brokering, as any transactions that generate new data require tempdb space. XenApp and XenDesktop tend to have short-lived transactions, which help keep the size of the tempdb small.

The tempdb is also used when queries generate large intermediate result sets. Guidance and sizing the tempdb can be found on the Microsoft TechNet article Optimizing tempdb Performance.

Provisioning Services

The Provisioning Services farm database contains static configuration and configuration logging (audit trail) data. The record size requirements outlined below can be used to help size the database:

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During the PVS farm setup, a database with an initial file size of 20MB is created. Due to the nature of the data in the PVS farm database the transaction log is not expected to grow very quickly, unless a large amount of configuration is performed.

In contrast to XenApp, which also offers the ability to track administrative changes, the related information is not written to a dedicated database but directly to the Provisioning Services farm database. In order to limit the size of the Provisioning Services database it is recommended to archive the audit trail data on a regular schedule.

Decision: Database Location

By default, the Configuration Logging and Monitoring databases are located within the Site Configuration database. Citrix recommends changing the location of these secondary databases as soon as the configuration of the site has been completed, in order to simplify sizing, maintenance and monitoring. All three databases can be hosted on the same server or on different servers. An ideal configuration would be to host the Monitoring database on a different server from the Site Configuration and Configuration Logging databases since it records more data, changes occur more frequently and the data is not considered to be as critical as the other databases. For more information, please see Change secondary database locations in the Citrix Product Documentation.

Note: The location of the Configuration Logging database cannot be changed when mandatory logging is enabled.

Decision: High-Availability

The following table highlights the impact to XenApp, XenDesktop and Provisioning Services when there is a database outage:

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Note: Please review HA options for 3rd party databases (for example, App-V, SCVMM or vCenter) with the respective software vendor.

In addition to the built-in database redundancy options, Microsoft SQL Server, as well as the underlying hypervisor (in virtual environments), offer a number of high availability features. These enable administrators to ensure single server outages will have a minimal impact (if any) on the XenApp and XenDesktop infrastructure. The following the SQL / hypervisor high availability features are available:

VM-level HA - This high availability option is available for virtual SQL servers only, which need to be marked for High Availability at the hypervisor layer. In case of an unexpected shutdown of the virtual machine or the underlying hypervisor host, the hypervisor will try to restart the VM immediately on a different host. While VM-level HA can minimize downtimes in power-outage scenarios, it cannot protect from operating system level corruption. This solution is less expensive than mirroring or clustering because it uses a built-in hypervisor feature. However, the automatic failover process is slower, as it can take time detect an outage and start the virtual SQL server on another host. This may interrupt the service to users.

  • Mirroring - Database mirroring increases database availability with almost instantaneous failover. Database mirroring can be used to maintain a single standby or mirror database, for a corresponding principal or production database. Database mirroring runs with either synchronous operation in high-safety mode, or asynchronous operation in high- performance mode. In high-safety mode with automatic failover (recommended for XenDesktop) a third server instance, known as a witness, is required, which enables the mirror server to act as a hot standby server. Failover from the principal database to the mirror database happens automatically and is typically completed within a few seconds. It is a good practice to enable VM-level HA (or a similar automatic restart functionality) for at least the witness to ensure SQL service availability in case of a multi-server outage.

Note: Microsoft is planning to remove mirroring as a high availability option in a future release of SQL Server and is discouraging its use in new network development. Please refer to the Microsoft article Database Mirroring (SQL Server) for more information.

  • AlwaysOn Failover Cluster Instances - Failover clustering provides high-availability support for an entire instance of Microsoft SQL Server. A failover cluster is a combination of two or more nodes, or servers, using a shared storage. A Microsoft SQL Server AlwaysOn Failover Cluster Instance, introduced in SQL Server 2012, appears on the network as a single computer, but has functionality that provides failover from one node to another if the current node becomes unavailable. The transition from one node to the other node is seamless for the clients connected to the cluster. AlwaysOn Failover cluster Instances require a Windows Server Failover Clustering (WSFC) resource group. The number of nodes supported in the WSFC resource group will depend on the SQL Server edition. (Please refer to the table in the Decision: Edition earlier in this chapter.) For more information please refer to MSDN – AlwaysOn Failover Cluster Instances (SQL Server).
  • AlwaysOn Availability Groups - AlwaysOn Availability Groups is an enterprise-level high-availability and disaster recovery solution introduced in Microsoft SQL Server 2012, which enables administrators to maximize availability for one or more user databases. AlwaysOn Availability Groups require that the Microsoft SQL Server instances reside on Windows Server failover clustering (WSFC) nodes. Similar to failover clustering a single virtual IP / network name is exposed to the database users. In contrast to failover clustering, shared storage is not required since the data is transferred using a network connection. Both synchronous and asynchronous replication to one or more secondary servers is supported. As opposed to mirroring or clustering secondary servers can be actively used for processing incoming read-only requests, backups or integrity checks. This feature can be used to offload user resource enumeration requests to a secondary SQL server in XenDesktop environments to essentially scale-out a SQL server infrastructure. Since the data on active secondary servers can lag multiple seconds behind the primary server, the read-only routing feature cannot be used for other XenDesktop database requests at this point in time. For more information, please refer to MSDN – AlwaysOn Availability Groups (SQL Server).

The following table outlines the recommended high availability features for Citrix databases:

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Decision: Connection Leasing

Connection leasing is a new XenApp and XenDesktop 7.6 feature that allows Hosted Shared, Hosted Windows and Browser Apps and Personal VDI users to connect and reconnect to their most recently used applications and desktops, even when the site database is unavailable. Connection Leasing is not available for users with a Pooled VDI desktop.

The lease information along with the application, desktop, icon, and worker information is stored on the controller’s local disk and synchronized between controllers in the site. If the site database becomes unavailable, the controllers enter a “leased connection mode” and replay cached operations from an XML file on the local disk to connect or reconnect users to a recently used application or desktop.

Administrators familiar with the local host cache in XenApp 6.5 and earlier should understand the similarities and differences with connection leasing because it can have an impact on the design and scalability of the XenApp and XenDesktop 7.6 solution. In XenApp 6.5 and earlier, the IMA service is responsible for synchronizing the local host cache with the data store. In XenApp and XenDesktop 7.6, the FMA service caches the brokering operations (leases) to an XML file containing the address of the VDA, application path, and other details required for the session to launch. The FMA also caches dynamic information such as user sessions, VDA registrations, and load. These files are uploaded to the SQL database and synchronized between all controllers in the site. The controllers will download the files on a regular basis so that any other controller in the site can connect a user to their session.

Each controller needs additional disk space for the cached lease files. At a minimum, 4KB is required for each lease file. Each resource entry in the enumeration lease will take anywhere from 200 bytes to a few KBs depending on the number of entries and resources published. Citrix testing has shown that 200,000 leased connections for server hosted applications and desktops required approximately 3GB of disk space. 40,000 leased connections for assigned desktops required approximately 156MB of disk space.

By default, connection leases have an expiration period of two weeks. Applications and desktops must have been launched within the two last weeks to still be accessible when the database is unavailable. The expiration period is configurable using PowerShell cmdlets or editing the registry and can be set from 0 minutes to several years. Setting the expiration period too short will prevent users from connecting to their virtual desktops and applications in the event of an outage. Setting the expiration period too long will increase storage requirement on the controllers.

By default, connection leasing affects the entire site, however, leases can be revoked for specific users, which prevents them from accessing any applications or desktops when the site database is unavailable.

For more information on connection leasing considerations and configuration, please refer to eDocs – Connection Leasing.

Citrix Licensing

Citrix offers organizations the flexibility of multiple licensing models that align with common usage scenarios. The different licensing models vary based on the Citrix product used, but can include per user/device and per concurrent user. Several Citrix products use the license server, while other products require a license to be installed on the product itself.