Security and user experience
Security is important to any organization, but you need to strike a balance between security and user experience. On one hand, you may have a very secure environment that is very difficult for users to use. On the other hand, your environment may be so user-friendly that access control is not as strict. The other sections in this virtual handbook cover security features in detail, but the purpose of this article is to give a general overview of the security options available to you and to get you thinking about common security concerns in Endpoint Management.
Here are some key considerations to keep in mind for each use case:
- Do you want to secure certain apps, the entire device, or both?
- How do you want your users to authenticate their identity? Will you be using LDAP, certificate-based authentication, or a combination of the two?
- How much time should pass before a user’s session times out? Keep in mind that there are different time-out values for background services, Citrix ADC, and for being able to access apps while offline.
- Do you want users to set up a device-level passcode and/or an app-level passcode? How many logon attempts do you want to afford to users? Keep in mind the additional per-app authentication requirements that may be implemented with MAM and how users may perceive them.
- What other restrictions do you want to place on users? Should they be able to access cloud services such as Siri? What can they do with each app you make available to them and what can they not do? Should you deploy corporate WiFi policies to prevent cellular data plans from being eaten up while inside office spaces?
App vs. Device
One of the first things you should consider is whether you should only secure certain apps (mobile app management, or MAM) or if you also want to manage the entire device (mobile device management, or MDM). Most commonly, if you don’t require device-level control, you’ll only need to manage mobile apps, especially if your organization supports Bring Your Own Device (BYOD).
Users with devices that Endpoint Management doesn’t manage can install apps through the app store. Instead of device-level controls, such as selective or full wipe, you control access to the apps through app policies. The policies, depending on the values you set, require the device to check Endpoint Management routinely to confirm that the apps are still allowed to run.
MDM allows you to secure an entire device, including the ability to take inventory of all the software on a device and prevent enrollment if the device is jailbroken, rooted, or has unsafe software installed. Taking this level of control, however, makes users leery of allowing that much power over their personal devices and may reduce enrollment rates.
Authentication is where a great deal of the user experience takes place. If your organization is already running Active Directory, using Active Directory is the simplest way to have your users access the system.
Another big part of the authentication user experience is time-outs. A high security environment may have users log on every time they access the system, but that option may not be ideal for all organizations. For example, having users enter their credentials every time they want to access their email can be very frustrating and may not be necessary.
For added security, you can enable a feature called user entropy. Citrix Secure Hub and some other apps often share common data like passwords, PINs, and certificates to ensure everything functions properly. This information is stored in a generic vault within Secure Hub. If you enable user entropy through the Encrypt Secrets option, Endpoint Management creates a new vault called UserEntropy, and moves the information from the generic vault into this new vault. In order for Secure Hub or another app to access the data, users must enter a password or PIN.
Enabling user entropy adds another layer of authentication in a number of places. This means, however, that whenever an app requires access to shared data in the UserEntropy vault—which includes passwords, PINs, and certificates—users need to enter a password or PIN.
Both MDX and MDM policies give a great deal of flexibility to organizations, but they can also restrict users. You may want this in some situations, but policies may also make a system unusable. For instance, you may want to block access to cloud applications such as Siri or iCloud that have the potential to send sensitive data where you don’t want it going. You can set up a policy to block access to these services, but keep in mind that such a policy may have unintended consequences. The iOS keyboard mic is also reliant on cloud access and you may block access to that feature as well.
Enterprise Mobility Management (EMM) segments into Mobile Device Management (MDM) and Mobile Application Management (MAM). While MDM enables organizations to secure and control mobile devices, MAM facilitates application delivery and management. With the increasing adoption of BYOD, you can typically implement a MAM solution, such as Endpoint Management, to assist with application delivery, software licensing, configuration, and application life cycle management.
With Endpoint Management, you can go a step further to secure these apps by configuring specific MAM policies and VPN settings to prevent data leak and other security threats. Endpoint Management provides organizations with the flexibility to include both MDM and MAM functionality in the same environment.
In addition to the ability to deliver apps to mobile devices, Endpoint Management offers app containerization through MDX technology. MDX secures apps through encryption that is separate from device level encryption; you can wipe or lock the app, and the apps are subject to granular policy-based controls. Independent software vendors (ISVs) can apply these controls using the Mobile Apps SDK.
In a corporate environment, users use a variety of mobile apps to aid in their job role. The apps can include apps from the public app store, in-house developed apps, or native apps as well, in some cases. Endpoint Management categorizes these apps as follows:
Public apps: These apps include free or paid apps available in a public app store, such as Apple App Store or Google Play. Vendors outside of the organization often make their apps available in public app stores. This option lets their customers download the apps directly from the Internet. You may use numerous public apps in your organization depending on users’ needs. Examples of such apps include GoToMeeting, Salesforce, and EpicCare apps.
Citrix does not support downloading app binaries directly from public app stores, and then wrapping them with the MDX Toolkit for enterprise distribution. If you need to wrap third-party applications, work with your app vendor to obtain the app binaries which you can wrap using the MDX Toolkit.
In-house apps: Many organizations have in-house developers who create apps that provide specific functionality and are independently developed and distributed within the organization. In certain cases, some organizations may also have apps that ISVs provide. You can deploy such apps as native apps or you can containerize the apps by using a MAM solution, such as Endpoint Management. For example, a healthcare organization may create an in-house app that allows physicians to view patient information on mobile devices. An organization can then use the MDX Service or MDX Toolkit to wrap the app to secure patient information and enable VPN access to the back-end patient database server.
Web and SaaS apps: These apps include apps accessed from an internal network (web apps) or over a public network (SaaS). Endpoint Management also allows you to create custom web and SaaS apps using a list of app connectors. These app connectors can facilitate single sign-on (SSO) to existing Web apps. For details, see App connector types. For example, you can use Google Apps SAML for SSO based on Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) to Google Apps.
Mobile productivity apps: These are Citrix-developed apps that are included with the Endpoint Management license. For details, see About mobile productivity apps. Citrix also offers other business-ready apps that ISVs develop by using the Mobile Apps SDK.
HDX apps: These are Windows-hosted apps that you publish with StoreFront. If you have a Citrix Virtual Apps and Desktops environment, you can integrate the apps with Endpoint Management to make the apps available to the enrolled users.
Depending on the type of mobile apps you plan to deploy and manage with Endpoint Management, the underlying configuration and architecture will differ. For example, if multiple groups of users with different level of permissions will consume a single app, you may have to create separate delivery groups to deploy two separate versions of the same app. In addition, you must make sure the user group membership is mutually exclusive to avoid policy mismatches on users’ devices.
You may also want to manage iOS application licensing by using Apple volume purchase. This option will require you to register for the volume purchase program and configure Endpoint Management volume purchase settings in the Endpoint Management console to distribute the apps with the volume purchase licenses. A variety of such use cases makes it important to assess and plan your MAM strategy prior to implementing the Endpoint Management environment. You can start planning your MAM strategy by defining the following:
Types of apps: List the different types of apps you plan to support and categorize them, such as public, native, Citrix mobile productivity apps, Web, in-house, ISV apps, and so on. Also, categorize the apps for different device platforms, such as iOS and Android. This categorization will help with aligning different Endpoint Management settings that are required for each type of app. For example, certain apps may not qualify for wrapping, or a few apps may require the use of the Mobile Apps SDK to enable special APIs for interaction with other apps.
Network requirements: You need to configure apps with specific network access requirements with the appropriate settings. For example, certain apps may need access to your internal network through VPN. Some apps may require Internet access to route access via the DMZ. In order to allow such apps to connect to the required network, you have to configure various settings accordingly. Defining per-app network requirements help in finalizing your architectural decisions early on, which will streamline the overall implementation process.
Security requirements: Defining the security requirements that apply to either individual apps or all the apps is critical. Although settings, such as the MDX policies, apply to individual apps, session and authentication settings apply across all apps, and some apps may have specific encryption, containerization, wrapping, encryption, authentication, geo fencing, passcode or data sharing requirements that you will need to outline in advance to simplify your deployment.
Deployment requirements: You may want to use a policy-based deployment to allow only compliant users to download the published apps. For example, you may want certain apps to require that device encryption is enabled or the device is managed, or that the device meets a minimum operating system version. You may also want certain apps to be available only to corporate users. You need to outline such requirements in advance so that you can configure the appropriate deployment rules or actions.
Licensing requirements: You should record app-related licensing requirements. These notes will help you to manage license usage effectively and to decide if you need to configure specific features in Endpoint Management to facilitate licensing. For example, if you deploy an iOS app, irrespective of whether it is a free or a paid app, Apple enforces licensing requirements on the app by making the users sign into their Apple App Store account. You can register for Apple volume purchase to distribute and manage these apps via Endpoint Management. Volume purchase allows users to download the apps without having to sign into their Apple App Store account. Additionally, tools, such as Samsung SAFE and Samsung Knox, have special licensing requirements, which you need to complete prior to deploying those features.
Blacklist/whitelist requirements: There may be apps that you do not want users to install or use at all. Creating a blacklist will define an out of compliance event. You can then set up policies to trigger in case such a thing happens. On the other hand, an app may be acceptable for use but may fall under the blacklist for one reason or another. If this is the case, you can add the app to a whitelist and indicate that the app is acceptable to use but is not required. Also, keep in mind that the apps pre-installed on new devices can include some commonly used apps that are not part of the operating system. This may conflict with your blacklisting strategy.
Apps use case
A healthcare organization plans to deploy Endpoint Management to serve as a MAM solution for their mobile apps. Mobile apps are delivered to corporate and BYOD users. IT decides to deliver and manage the following apps:
- Mobile productivity apps: iOS and Android apps provided by Citrix.
- Citrix Files: App to access shared data and to share, sync, and edit files.
Public app store
- Secure Hub: Client used by all mobile devices to communicate with Endpoint Management. IT pushes security settings, configurations, and mobile apps to mobile devices via the Secure Hub client. Android and iOS devices enroll in Endpoint Management through Secure Hub.
- Citrix Workspace app: Mobile app that allows users to open on mobile devices apps hosted by Citrix Virtual Apps.
- GoToMeeting: An online meeting, desktop sharing, and video conferencing client that lets users meet with other computer users, customers, clients, or colleagues via the Internet in real time.
- SalesForce1: Salesforce1 lets users access Salesforce from mobile devices and brings all Chatter, CRM, custom apps, and business processes together in a unified experience for any Salesforce user.
- RSA SecurID: Software-based token for two-factor authentication.
EpicCare apps: These apps give healthcare practitioners secure and portable access to patient charts, patient lists, schedules, and messaging.
- Haiku: Mobile app for the iPhone and Android phones.
- Canto: Mobile app for the iPad
- Rover: Mobile apps for iPhone and iPad.
HDX: HDX apps are delivered by Citrix Virtual Apps to Citrix workspace.
- Epic Hyperspace: Epic client application for electronic health record management.
- Vocera: HIPAA compliant voice-over IP and messaging mobile app that extends the benefits of Vocera voice technology anytime, anywhere via iPhone and Android smartphones.
- HCMail: App that helps compose encrypted messages, search address books on internal mail servers, and send the encrypted messages to the contacts using an email client.
In-house web apps
- PatientRounding: Web application used to record patient health information by different departments.
- Outlook Web Access: Allows the access of email via a web browser.
- SharePoint: Used for organization-wide file and data sharing.
The following table lists the basic information required for MAM configuration.
Secure Notes and Secure Tasks reached End of Life (EOL) status on December 31, 2018. For details, see EOL and deprecated apps.
|App Name||App Type||MDX Wrapping||iOS||Android|
|Secure Mail||Mobile productivity app||No for version 10.4.1 and later||Yes||Yes|
|Secure Web||Mobile productivity app||No for version 10.4.1 and later||Yes||Yes|
|Secure Notes||Mobile productivity app||No for version 10.4.1 and later||Yes||Yes|
|Citrix Files||Mobile productivity app||No for version 10.4.1 and later||Yes||Yes|
|Secure Hub||Public App||NA||Yes||Yes|
|Citrix Workspace app||Public App||NA||Yes||Yes|
|RSA SecurID||Public App||NA||Yes||Yes|
|Epic Haiku||Public App||NA||Yes||Yes|
|Epic Canto||Public App||NA||Yes||No|
|Epic Rover||Public App||NA||Yes||No|
|Epic Hyperspace||HDX App||NA||Yes||Yes|
|Outlook Web Access||Web App||NA||Yes||Yes|
The following tables list specific requirements you can consult when configuring MAM policies in Endpoint Management.
|App Name||VPN Required||Interaction (with apps outside of container)||Interaction (from apps outside of container)||Device Encryption|
|Secure Mail||Y||Selectively Allowed||Allowed||Not required|
|Secure Web||Y||Allowed||Allowed||Not required|
|Secure Notes||Y||Allowed||Allowed||Not required|
|Citrix Files||Y||Allowed||Allowed||Not required|
|Citrix Workspace app||Y||N/A||N/A||N/A|
|Outlook Web Access||Y||N/A||N/A||Not required|
|App Name||Proxy Filtering||Licensing||Geo-fencing||Mobile Apps SDK||Minimum Operating System Version|
|Secure Mail||Required||N/A||Selectively Required||N/A||Enforced|
|Secure Web||Required||N/A||Not required||N/A||Enforced|
|Secure Notes||Required||N/A||Not required||N/A||Enforced|
|Citrix Files||Required||N/A||Not required||N/A||Enforced|
|Secure Hub||Not required||Volume purchase||Not required||N/A||Not enforced|
|Citrix Workspace app||Not required||Volume purchase||Not required||N/A||Not enforced|
|GoToMeeting||Not required||Volume purchase||Not required||N/A||Not enforced|
|SalesForce1||Not required||Volume purchase||Not required||N/A||Not enforced|
|RSA SecurID||Not required||Volume purchase||Not required||N/A||Not enforced|
|Epic Haiku||Not required||Volume purchase||Not required||N/A||Not enforced|
|Epic Canto||Not required||Volume purchase||Not required||N/A||Not enforced|
|Epic Rover||Not required||Volume purchase||Not required||N/A||Not enforced|
|Epic Hyperspace||Not required||N/A||Not required||N/A||Not enforced|
|PatientRound-ing||Required||N/A||Not required||N/A||Not enforced|
|Outlook Web Access||Required||N/A||Not required||N/A||Not enforced|
|SharePoint||Required||N/A||Not required||N/A||Not enforced|
Every organization consists of diverse user communities that operate in different functional roles. These user communities perform different tasks and office functions using various resources that you provide through the users’ mobile devices. Users may work from home or in remote offices using mobile devices that you provide, or using their personal mobile devices, which allows them to access tools that are subject to certain security compliance rules.
As more and more user communities start using mobile devices to either simplify or aid in their job role, Enterprise Mobility Management (EMM) becomes critical to prevent data leak and to enforce an organization’s security restrictions. In order for efficient and more sophisticated mobile device management, you can categorize your user communities. Doing so simplifies the mapping of users to resources and ensures that the right security policies apply to the right users.
The following example illustrates how the user communities of a healthcare organization are classified for EMM.
User communities use case
This example healthcare organization provides technology resources and access to multiple users, including network and affiliate employees and volunteers. The organization has chosen to roll out the EMM solution to non-executive users only.
User roles and functions for this organization can be broken into subgroups including: clinical, non-clinical, and contractors. A selected set of users receive corporate mobile devices, while others can access limited company resources from their personal devices. In order to enforce the right level of security restrictions and prevent data leak, the organization decided that corporate IT manages each enrolled device, Corporate and Bring Your Own Device (BYOD). Additionally, users can only enroll a single device.
The following section provides an overview of the roles and functions of each subgroup:
- Physicians (Doctors, Surgeons, and so on)
- Specialists (Dieticians, phlebotomists, anesthesiologists, radiologists, cardiologists, oncologists, and so on)
- Outside physicians (Non-employee physicians and office workers that work from remote offices)
- Home Health Services (Office and mobile workers performing physician services for patient home visits)
- Research Specialist (Knowledge Workers and Power Users at six Research Institutes performing clinical research to find answers to issues in medicine)
- Education and Training (Nurses, physicians, and specialists in education and training)
- Shared Services (Office workers performing various back office functions including: HR, Payroll, Accounts Payable, Supply Chain Service, and so on)
- Physician Services (Office workers performing a variety of health care management, administrative services, and business process solutions to providers, including: Administrative Services, Analytics and Business Intelligence, Business Systems, Client Services, Finance, Managed Care Administration, Patient Access Solutions, Revenue Cycle Solutions, and so on)
- Support Services (Office workers performing a variety of non-clinical functions including: Benefits Administration, Clinical Integration, Communications, Compensation & Performance Management, Facility & Property Services, HR Technology Systems, Information Services, Internal Audit & Process Improvement, and so o.)
- Philanthropic Programs (Office and mobile workers that perform various functions in support of philanthropic programs)
- Manufacturer and vendor partners (Onsite and remotely connected via site-to-site VPN providing various non-clinical support functions)
Based on the preceding information, the organization created the following entities. For more information about delivery groups in Endpoint Management, see Deploy resources.
Active Directory Organizational Units (OUs) and Groups
For OU = Endpoint Management Resources:
- OU = Clinical; Groups =
- XM-Outside Physicians
- XM-Home Health Services
- XM-Research Specialist
- XM-Education and Training
- OU = Non-Clinical; Groups =
- XM-Shared Services
- XM-Physician Services
- XM-Support Services
- XM-Philanthropic Programs
Endpoint Management Local Users and Groups
For Group= Contractors, Users =
- Vendor 3
- … Vendor 10
Endpoint Management Delivery Groups
- Clinical-Outside Physicians
- Clinical-Home Health Services
- Clinical-Research Specialist
- Clinical-Education and Training
- Non-Clinical-Shared Services
- Non-Clinical-Physician Services
- Non-Clinical-Support Services
- Non-Clinical-Philanthropic Programs
Delivery Group and User Group mapping
|Active Directory Groups||Endpoint Management Delivery Groups|
|XM-Outside Physicians||Clinical-Outside Physicians|
|XM-Home Health Services||Clinical-Home Health Services|
|XM-Research Specialist||Clinical-Research Specialist|
|XM-Education and Training||Clinical-Education and Training|
|XM-Shared Services||Non-Clinical-Shared Services|
|XM-Physician Services||Non-Clinical-Physician Services|
|XM-Support Services||Non-Clinical-Support Services|
|XM-Philanthropic Programs||Non-Clinical-Philanthropic Programs|
Delivery Group and Resource mapping
The following tables illustrate the resources assigned to each delivery group in this use case. The first table shows the mobile app assignments; the second table shows the public app, HDX apps, and device management resources.
|Endpoint Management Delivery Groups||Citrix Mobile Apps||Public Mobile Apps||HDX Mobile Apps|
|Clinical-Home Health Services||X|
|Clinical-Education and Training||X||X|
|Endpoint Management Delivery Groups||Public App: RSA SecurID||Public App: EpicCare Haiku||HDX App: Epic Hyperspace||Passcode Policy||Device Restrictions||Automated Actions||Wi-Fi Policy|
|Clinical-Home Health Services|
|Clinical-Education and Training||X||X|
Notes and considerations
- Endpoint Management creates a default delivery group named All Users during the initial configuration. If you do not disable this Delivery Group, all Active Directory users will have rights to enroll into Endpoint Management.
- Endpoint Management synchronizes Active Directory users and groups on demand using a dynamic connection to the LDAP server.
- If a user is part of a group that is not mapped in Endpoint Management, that user cannot enroll. Likewise, if a user is a member of multiple groups, Endpoint Management will only categorize the user as being in the groups mapped to Endpoint Management.
The amount of security considerations when deploying a Endpoint Management environment can quickly become overwhelming. There are many interlocking pieces and settings. You might not know where to begin or what to choose to ensure an acceptable level of protection is available. To make these choices simpler, Citrix provides recommendations for High, Higher, and Highest Security, as outlined in the following table.
Note that security concerns alone should not dictate the mode in which your devices enroll: MAM, MDM+MAM with MDM optional, or MDM+MAM with MDM required. It is important to also review the requirements of the use case and decide if you can mitigate security concerns before choosing your management mode.
High: Using these settings provides an optimal user experience while maintaining a basic level of security acceptable to most organizations.
Higher: These settings strike a stronger balance between security and usability.
Highest: Following these recommendations will provide a very high level of security at the cost of usability and user adoption.
Management mode security considerations
The following table specifies the management modes for each security level.
|High Security||Higher Security||Highest Security|
- Depending on the use case, a MAM-only deployment could meet security requirements and provide a good user experience.
- For use cases like BYOD in which all business and security requirements may be satisfied with app containerization only, Citrix recommends MAM-only mode.
- For high security environments (and corporate issued devices), Citrix recommends MDM+MAM to take advantage of all security capabilities available.
Citrix ADC and Citrix Gateway security considerations
The following table specifies the Citrix ADC and Citrix Gateway recommendations for each security level.
|High Security||Higher Security||Highest Security|
|Citrix ADC is recommended. Citrix Gateway is required for MAM and MDM+MAM||Standard NetScaler for XenMobile wizard configuration with SSL bridge if Endpoint Management is in the DMZ.||SSL Offload with end-to-end encryption|
- Exposing Endpoint Management server to the Internet via NAT or existing third-party proxies/load-balancers could be an option for MDM as long as the SSL traffic terminates on Endpoint Management server, but this choice poses a potential security risk.
- For high security environments, Citrix Gateway with the default Endpoint Management configuration should meet or exceed security requirements.
- For MDM enrollments with the highest security needs, SSL termination at Citrix Gateway provides the ability to inspect traffic at the perimeter, while maintaining end-to-end SSL encryption.
- Options to define SSL/TLS ciphers.
- For more information, see Integrating with Citrix Gateway and Citrix ADC.
Enrollment security considerations
The following table specifies the Citrix ADC and Citrix Gateway recommendations for each security level.
|High Security||Higher Security||Highest Security|
|Active Directory Group membership only. All users Delivery Group disabled.||Invitation only enrollment mode. Active Directory Group membership only. All users Delivery Group disabled||Enrollment mode tied to Device ID. Active Directory Group membership only. All users Delivery Group disabled|
- Citrix generally recommends that you restrict enrollment to users in predefined Active Directory groups only. This requires disabling the built-in All users Delivery Group.
- You can use enrollment invitations to restrict enrollment to users with an invitation only.
- You can use one-time PIN (OTP) enrollment invites as a two-factor solution and to control the number of devices a user may enroll.
- For environments with the highest security requirements, you can tie enrollment invitations to a device by SN/UDID/EMEI. A two-factor option is also available to require Active Directory password and OTP. (Note that OTP is not supported as an option for Windows devices.)
Device PIN security considerations
The following table specifies the device PIN recommendations for each security level.
|High Security||Higher Security||Highest Security|
|Recommended. High security is required for device-level encryption. May be enforced with MDM. Can be set as required for MAM-only by using an MDX policy.||Enforced by using MDM and/or MDX policy.||Enforced by using MDM and MDX policy. MDM Complex passcode policy.|
- Citrix recommends the use of a device PIN.
- You can enforce a device PIN via an MDM policy.
- You can use an MDX policy to make a device PIN a requirement for using managed apps; for example, for BYOD use cases.
- Citrix recommends combining the MDM and MDX policy options for increased security for MDM+MAM enrollments.
- For environments with the highest security requirements, you can configure complex passcode policies and enforced them with MDM. You can configure automatic actions to notify administrators or issue selective/full device wipes when a device doesn’t comply with a passcode policy.